WW1 Centenary

Great War Centenary 2014-2018 website by Paul Reed


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Verdun Centenary

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This week will mark the centenary of the Battle of Verdun; the longest, and perhaps arguably one of the most terrible battles of the Great War. From February to December 1916 there were an estimated 770,000 French and German casualties and it became known to the Poilus who fought there as the ‘mincing machine’ or the ‘mill on the Meuse’ in the way it chewed up men, with killing almost on an industrial scale.

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Poilus at Douaumont 1916 (Paul Reed)

The landscape at Verdun also struggled to survive: conservative estimates on the amount of shells fired from the huge quantity of artillery used at Verdun – everything from the French 75mms to the massive German 420mm Big Berthas – state that more than 1,000 shells fell for every square metre of the battlefield. This turned Verdun into a lunar landscape of shell holes; a smashed and tortured landscape still visible beneath the trees of the National Forest today.

The smashed Verdun landscape at Fort Douaumont (Paul Reed)

The smashed Verdun landscape at Fort Douaumont (Paul Reed)

But more than the casualties, and the number of shells fired, is what Verdun came to mean, and still means. After the Great War Verdun was seen as a warning: that warfare on this scale should never happen again. This is what the ossuary at Douaumont was built for: a massive monument with the fragmented remains of those who had died in 1916 on display: look at war does to man, it must never happen again. The memories of Verdun were still fresh in the minds, the subconscious of the French nation when it found itself at war with Nazi Germany a generation later. Blitzkrieg shattered France’s armed forces and those left were faced with the cold, hard truth: fight on and face another Verdun, or capitulate. Even that hero of Verdun was wheeled out to unify France after the German victory: Marshall Philippe Pétain.

Kohl & Mitterrand at Verdun 1984 (©Wolfgang Eilmes/DPA/MAXPPP)

Kohl & Mitterrand at Verdun 1984 (©Wolfgang Eilmes/DPA/MAXPPP)

In the 1980s, at the height of a Cold War almost gone hot, Verdun surfaced once more as a way to bring France and Germany together: Chancellor Helmut Kohl and President François Mitterrand met, hugged and kissed each other’s cheeks at Verdun, even holding hands, during a time when an even more terrible conflict seemingly loomed close. The symbolism was obvious: Verdun was a warning once more.

Verdun today: Mort Homme 2016 (Paul Reed)

Verdun today: Mort Homme 2016 (Paul Reed)

A century on from 1916, Verdun emerges once more in France as the nation’s byword for the Great War. French people are remembering the Poilus of the Great War in a way that has not happened before, with superb projects like 1 Jour 1 Poilu, war memorials are being researched and the generation of the Great War is not some distant part of France’s past. The war touched all of France, and a century later it touches the nation once more: what modern France makes of Verdun today remains to be seen.

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News: French Plans To Commemorate WW1 Centenary

The year 2014 will mark the beginning of the centenary of the First World War. In view of this great international memorial event, a report written by Mr. Joseph ZIMET, Directorate of memory, heritage and archives at the Department of Defense and Veterans Affairs, was presented on November 11 2011 to  the President of the Republic.

The report offers a foreshadowing division of laboor between the state and local authorities, with public policy that focuses on the beginning (2014) and the end (2018) of the commemoration. The Official Centennial commemorative program for the year 2014 will be organized around six major events taking place between June 28 2014, the European opening of the Centenary, and November 11 2014, when the writer and Great War veteran  Maurice Genevoix could enter the Pantheon [note: this is the direct translation: it relates to a desire for Genevoix’s ashes to be transferred to the Panthéon cemetery].

Organized as a true co-production between the state, foreign partners, territories and associations, the program proposed for the Centenary Memorial also suggests an effort to scan and put online the archives of eight million individual veterans of the First World War, the adding of World Heritage status to key landscapes and sites of memory of the Great War, and the creation of a commission to consider the issue of executed soldiers of the Great War.

An interministerial taskforce will be created at the beginning of the year 2012, to implement the program of commemorative centenary of the First World War.

Source: French Plans For 2014